PARBOABOA – Pleonasms, an intriguing figure of speech in the realm of literature, serve to add emphasis or unnecessary repetition to a sentence. While it may appear redundant, pleonasms possess a strong rhetorical impact and have the ability to create dramatic or captivating effects. By repeating words, pleonasms bolster the intended meaning and captivate the reader or listener’s attention. In Ulin Nuha Masruchin’s book “Smart in Numbers, Rhymes and Poetry” (2017), pleonasm is defined as a language style that employs words with clear meanings as a form of affirmation. In fact, the metaphorical example of pleonasm can be grasped fully without reiterating the same words. In other words, pleonasm denotes the excessive use of words for rhetorical purposes. Although it may seem redundant, pleonasms yield a powerful impact and effectively generate a more dramatic or intriguing effect in writing or speech. So, what does pleonasm entail? Let’s explore its definitions, functions, features, and examples. Read on for a comprehensive review.
Understanding the Metaphor of Pleonasm
What is pleonasm? Pleonasms are words that utilize more words than necessary, rendering them excessive, according to the definition provided in the Indonesian Language Dictionary (KBBI). Within these expressions, there is a repetition of words that are actually sufficient to comprehend the intended meaning of the sentence. However, they are employed excessively to underscore or intensify the effect. Another term for this figure of speech is the figure of assertion or repetition. According to Nur Indah Sholikhati’s book “Indonesian Language Figures Speeches, Poems, Poems and Standard Words in Indonesian for Elementary, Middle School, High School and General” (2019), the meaning of pleonasm is a stylistic language expression that injects unnecessary words or information into statements where the meaning and purpose are already clear. Even if the information could be eliminated, the essence of the sentence remains unchanged. Nevertheless, the utilization of this metaphor strengthens the verse and makes it more explicit. There is a variety of recognizable pleonasm examples, including:
1. If you agree, Nanda, student council president, please raise your hand for those who agree.
Meaning: Raise your hand to signify your agreement.
2. Those who feel they are capable of solving math problems can come forward.
Meaning: Coming forward is unequivocally coming forward.
3. We Indonesians should always remember the past.
Meaning: History is indisputably the past.
Functions of Pleonasm as Figures of Speech
According to Ulin Nuha Masruchin’s book “Smart, Figures of Speech, Rhymes and Poetry” (2017), the figurative function of pleonasm serves to strengthen emphasis and create a rhetorical and dramatic effect within a sentence or text. The superfluous repetition of words in pleonasms adds attraction and reinforces the intended meaning for the reader or listener. Here is a further explanation of these functions:
1. Creating Emphasis
Employing figures with redundant words can intensify the emphasis placed on an idea or information to be conveyed. Through excessive repetition, these words become more captivating and capture the reader or listener’s attention. This aids the writer or speaker in reinforcing the main message, making it easier to remember or comprehend.
2. Rhetorical Effects
The utilization of pleonasms as a figure of speech aims to create a rhetorical effect within a sentence or text. Through the excessive repetition of words, pleonasms can yield strong rhetorical effects, such as enhancing persuasion, evoking emotion, or creating a dramatic impact. The repetition of these words assists in achieving the desired effect in the realm of language and literary communication.
3. Dramatic Effect
One of the figurative functions of pleonasms is to create a dramatic effect within a sentence or text. By employing superfluous repetition of words, pleonasms can imbue the intended message with a stronger, more intense, and dramatic effect. This helps in establishing a more emotionally charged atmosphere or capturing the reader’s or listener’s attention in a more dramatic manner.
Characteristics of Pleonasm as Figures of Speech
Pleonasms, as figures of speech, possess several identifiable characteristics, as stated in Ainia Prihantini’s book “Super Complete Indonesian Figures of Speech, Idioms and Proverbs” (2015), including:
1. Contains Unnecessary Information
Pleonasms often incorporate information that is already obvious or unnecessary for understanding the meaning of the sentence. The repetition of words or descriptions is deliberately employed to create a more profound impact or add unnecessary emphasis.
2. Enhances Clarity and Power
By utilizing redundant words, pleonasms heighten the audibility and clarity of a given sentence. This serves to underline the intended message and capture the reader’s or listener’s attention.
3. Excessive Use of Descriptive Words
Repetition characterizes the excessive use of descriptive words. Even if the information is implicitly stated or easily understood, the repetition of words is employed to yield a more dramatic effect or emphasize the intended meaning.
4. Utilization of Denotative Words with Clear Meaning
Pleonasms rely on the repeated use of denotative words with distinct meanings. This serves to intensify the emphasis placed on the intended meaning and create a more impactful effect.
5. Repetition of Words
Repetition of words within a sentence is a prominent characteristic of pleonasm as a figure of speech. This intentional repetition aims to create a rhetorical effect, enhance emphasis, or infuse a sentence or text with a dramatic impact.
Examples of Pleonasm as Figures of Speech
Examples of pleonasms can be found in the General Guidelines for Indonesian Spelling (PUEBI) and Term Formation, compiled by the BIP Team. Some of these examples include:
1. Dinda went up to the top of the building.
Meaning: Ascending to a higher location.
2. Dicta is summoned to go down to the 2nd floor of the BK room.
Meaning: Descending to a lower location.
3. Get together (Gather).
Meaning: Gathering together.
4. Dini witnessed with her own eyes.
Meaning: Witnessing directly without intermediary.
5. Andi cheated during the exam.
Meaning: Cheating in an exam.
6. After dropping off Amel, Dika will return to school.
Meaning: Returning to the original location.
7. Marta appears to be missing and has not been to the office for several days.
Meaning: Disappearing without any trace.
8. Bono is reportedly in suspended animation.
Meaning: Dead and impossible to revive.
9. Andi feels falling in love is like flying high.
Meaning: Flying to a higher place.
10. Liana’s handwritten novel.
Meaning: Writing by hand.
These examples showcase the utilization of pleonasms to emphasize and intensify the intended meaning, while adding a rhetorical and dramatic effect to the sentences.
In conclusion, pleonasms serve as a captivating figure of speech in literature, employing unnecessary repetition to add emphasis and create dramatic effects within a sentence or text. Despite initially appearing redundant, pleonasms possess a powerful impact, reinforcing the main message and engaging the reader or listener’s attention. Through various functions, such as creating emphasis, yielding rhetorical effects, and establishing a dramatic effect, pleonasms enhance the communication of ideas and emotions. Recognizable characteristics, including the incorporation of unnecessary information, the enhancement of clarity and power, the excessive use of descriptive words, the utilization of denotative words with clear meanings, and the repetition of words, distinguish pleonasms as figures of speech. Furthermore, a range of examples demonstrates the application of pleonasms to reinforce the intended meaning and create a more powerful and thought-provoking effect in writing and speech.